The next generation of desalination will rely on multi-stage, high recovery reverse osmosis, delivering a lower cost of water and improving membrane performance.
Executive Summary Seawater reverse osmosis systems (SWRO) are the mainstay of large-scale desalination systems. Plant designs have settled in a more or less standard configuration using a single membrane stage with permeate recoveries ranging from
Executive Summary Reverse Osmosis (RO) systems are widely accepted on offshore platforms and vessels.These marine applications require compact size, good efficiency and low weight and the utmost in reliability as a failure can result in large
Executive Summary This White Paper addresses the impact of ERDs on the energy consumption of the RO process using an objective and fully transparent criteria. The analysis shows that published ERD efficiency data has virtually no correlation to the
Executive Summary Installation of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) systems in shipping containers is a widely practiced method to achieve rapid deployment in remote areas and/or to reduce CAPEX by performing final assembly and testing of the system
Executive Summary Turbochargers have come to dominate small and medium SWRO brine energy recovery applications by virtue of low CAPEX, easy operation and very good energy recovery efficiency. The other function of the turbocharger is to help